Archives de catégorie : Polices plurielles, plural policing

Séminaire « Acteurs, pratiques et représentations de la sécurité »

 

Acteurs, pratiques et représentations de la sécurité.

Gendarmes, policiers, pompiers, douaniers, soldats et société, XIXe-XXIe siècles

Pr. Jean-Noël Luc – Dr Arnaud-Dominique Houte – Université Paris-Sorbonne

Maison de la recherche (28 rue Serpente, Paris, mardi 17h-19h)

Ouvert en 2000, le séminaire de la Sorbonne poursuit deux objectifs.

– Étudier l’histoire, longtemps négligée par les chercheurs, de la Gendarmerie, une force militaire et policière originale, acteur essentiel de la sécurité et composante du système de défense.

– Élargir les travaux à la Police nationale et aux autres forces (civiles ou militaires, publiques ou privées, professionnelles ou informelles), qui contribuent à la sécurité, intérieure et extérieure, afin de participer au décloisonnement des recherches et à une meilleure compréhension de l’histoire de la sécurité, en France et à l’étranger.

27 septembre – Méthodologie, apports et limites de l’histoire du « Temps présent »

La Gendarmerie nationale et le choc de la modernité, de la fronde des personnels, à la fin du XXe siècle, à l’entreprise fédératrice de modernisation du général Denis Favier en 2013 (Pr. J.-N. Luc)

4 octobre- L’histoire des forces de l’ordre : sources, historiographie, méthodologie (Pr. J.N Luc)

11 octobre – Quand l’histoire de la police rencontre l’histoire urbaine

Savoirs et pratiques des agents de la Lieutenance générale de police chargés de l’aménagement urbain de Paris, 1667-1790 (Nicolas Vidoni, Université Aix-Marseille)

18 octobre- Histoire du commandement

Recruter, promouvoir et maintenir l’ordre dans les casernes de la Troisième République, 1872-1914 (Dr. Mathieu Marly, agrégé de l’Université)

 8 novembre L’histoire des forces de l’ordre : sources, historiographie, méthodologie

15 novembre – La police de la circulation

Le gendarme et l’automobile : imaginaires et débats de la police routière dans le premier tiers du XXe siècle (Dr. Arnaud-Dominique Houte)

22 novembre – La professionnalisation de la force publique

Origines et mutations d’une grande école militaire : l’École des officiers de la gendarmerie nationale (général François Alègre de la Soujeole, Inspection générale de la gendarmerie, Dr. Benoît Haberbusch, Centre de recherche de l’EOGN).

29 novembre – L’histoire des forces de l’ordre : sources, historiographie, méthodologie

6 décembre – L’étude des forces de sécurité comme observatoire de l’histoire des inégalités, des détresses et de l’engagement des services publics

Profils, motivations et polyvalence des sapeurs-pompiers de Paris au début du XXIe siècle (Dr. Romain Pudal, chargé de recherche en sociologie, CNRS, CURAPP-ESS)

13 décembre – L’ordre public, un sujet politique

Le Parti communiste français face aux questions de maintien de l’ordre, des années 1920 aux années 1960 (Jean Vigreux, professeur d’histoire contemporaine, Université de Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, UMR-CNRS)

4 janvier 2016 – L’indispensable apport de la sociologie

Trajectoires sociales et professionnelles des gendarmes et transformations de leur métier au début du XXIe siècle (Dr. Éléonora Elguezabal, chargée de recherche en sociologie, INRA-CESAER)

 

Colloque international. Les systèmes policiers et leurs territoires (XVIIIe-XIXe siècles)

ANR Systèmes policiers européens (XVIIIe-XIXe siècles)
2-3 juillet 2015
Maison Méditerranéenne des Sciences de l’Homme, Aix-en-Provence, France
Le programme « Les systèmes policiers européens XVIIIe-XIXe siècles) », soutenu par l’Agence nationale de la recherche (http://syspoe.hypotheses.org), s’inscrit dans le renouvellement qu’a connu l’histoire des polices ces dernières années. La notion de « système policier » renvoie d’une part à la façon dont, dans un espace et à un moment donnés, s’articulent différentes forces de police, selon des relations complexes de complémentarité, de concurrence, de hiérarchie ; elle interroge d’autre part les articulations et les interactions qui lient les administrations ou corps de police avec d’autres institutions de régulation sociale et leurs acteurs, qu’il s’agisse de l’armée, de la justice, de l’Eglise, des métiers, etc. Continuer la lecture de Colloque international. Les systèmes policiers et leurs territoires (XVIIIe-XIXe siècles)

Les acteurs des systèmes policiers / Actors of police systems

Colloque Syspoe, Lille, 8 et 9 octobre 2014, Université de Lille 3.

Ce colloque international s’intéressera aux pratiques des différents acteurs de la chose policière. Il vise à comprendre comment des catégories d’agents, pas forcément institutionnalisés, exerçaient des formes de police qui, agencées, pouvaient former un système. Les thématiques abordées permettront ainsi de mieux distinguer la police du policing, et comprendre l’insertion sociale d’une activité de régulation des désordres telle que la police. Continuer la lecture de Les acteurs des systèmes policiers / Actors of police systems

Contrôler le mouvement. Les polices des circulations et des transports XVIIIe-XXe siècle

Journée d’étude le 20 mars 2015
Axe « Plural Policing ». Journée proposant des approches historiques, géographiques et sociologiques.
Interventions d’Anne Conchon, Céline Régnard et Laurence Montel, René Lévy, Fabrice Hamelin, Stéphanie Sauget, Aurélien Delpirou. Discutants: Arnaud Houte et Aurélien Lignereux. Le programme complet sera présenté ultérieurement.

Appel à communications / Call for papers : « La polizia delle strade e delle acque navigabili” / “Policing roads and navigable waters” (deadline 10.09.2014)

Tiré du site Cepoc,

La polizia delle strade e delle acque navigabili: dalla sicurezza alla regolazione del traffico

Seminario di studi

Abbiategrasso (Milano) 28/29 novembre 2014

Proseguendo nella ormai consolidata tradizione di agili incontri seminariali di discussione su tematiche relative alla polizia e al controllo del territorio (per gli incontri sin qui svolti e la relativa pubblicazione di atti cfr. le sezioni Convegni e Collana di questo sito) si intende quest’anno affrontare l’argomento “La polizia delle strade e delle acque navigabili: dalla sicurezza alla regolazione del traffico”.
Continuer la lecture de Appel à communications / Call for papers : « La polizia delle strade e delle acque navigabili” / “Policing roads and navigable waters” (deadline 10.09.2014)

Appel à communications : « Migration policies and the materiality of identification in European cities, 1500 ‐ 2000 »

Call for papers for an international conference hosted by
Hilde Greefs (University of Antwerp – Centre of Urban History)
Anne Winter (Vrije Universiteit Brussel – Historical Research Into Urban Transformation Processes)
Place: Antwerp ‐ Date: 28‐29 May 2015
Urban history is to a large degree a history of migration and of dealing with migration. In late medieval and early modern cities migration flows and settlement were often regulated by localinstitutions such as citizenship, guild membership and settlement laws. During the transition from early modern to contemporary society, these local institutions were profoundly transformed as cities became part of modern nation states, where citizenship and membership primarily related to the nation and involved new mechanisms of identification and incorporation.
Economic and social historians have linked this transition to proletarianization andindustrialization, focusing on the impact of economic transformations on push and pull factors of migration, and relating the exclusion and disciplining of immigrants to class struggle. Political historians have in contrast placed the nation state and national identity at the centre of their analysis, often reducing the causes for changes in migration regulation to a monitoring problem. Cultural historians and historians of political thought in turn refer to still other causes, such as enlightenment thinking with its emphasis on natural rights, individualism and popular sovereignty.

Continuer la lecture de Appel à communications : « Migration policies and the materiality of identification in European cities, 1500 ‐ 2000 »

Parution : Histoire de la force publique aux XIXe et XXe siècles

Dossier de la Revue Histoire, Économie & Société – 4-2013

« Histoire de la force publique aux xixe et xxe siècles », sous la direction de Jean-Noël Luc et de Laurent López

Ce panorama montre la fécondité de quelques grands chantiers :

_ La circulation internationale des savoirs, des dispositifs et des usages policiers,

_ L’émergence des systèmes policiers (en cours d’analyse par le programme ANR – SYSPOE : systèmes policiers en Europe)

_ L’exercice de la police coloniale (que les anglophones appellent « colonial policing »)

_ L’histoire sociale des hommes et des femmes qui donnent corps aux institutions policières

_ Les gendarmes, mieux pris en compte par des historiens des polices et des armées,

_ Les interrelations entre ces militaires originaux, chargés de fonctions policières, les personnels des polices civiles, interrelations dont l’étude permet de commencer à construire une véritable histoire de la force publique

Sommaire Continuer la lecture de Parution : Histoire de la force publique aux XIXe et XXe siècles

Dagli esecutori alla polizia giudiziaria: un lungo percorso / Des auxiliaires à la police judiciaire : un long parcours

Seminario internazionale / Séminaire international

Università degli Studi di Messina

Aula Magna del Dipartimento di Scienze Giuridiche e Storia delle Istituzioni (6-7 dicembre 2013)

Venerdì 6 dicembre, ore 9

Giovanni Moschella, Andrea Romano, Saluti d’apertura Livio Antonielli, La proposta di lavoro Interventi

  • Susana Truchuelo Garcia, Las figuras del orden: los ejecutores de la ley en contextos de guerra comercial (España, siglos XV-XVII)
  • Matteo Giuli, Polizia inadempiente in Antico Regime. Gli esecutori lucchesi e le catture “negligentate”
  • Luca Covino, La forza del disordine. Giurisdizione baronale ed esecutori di giustizia nei feudi del Mezzogiorno moderno
  • Laura Amato, La denuncia anonima come strumento di controllo sociale tra Sette e Ottocento
  • Luca Mannori, Per un censimento degli esecutori di giustizia nello Stato fiorentino d’antico regime: prime ricognizioni
  • Nicolas Vidoni, Les auxiliaires de police au XVIIIe siècle à Paris

Venerdì 6 dicembre, ore 14.30

Interventi

  • Marco Cicchini, Una nuova grammatica concettuale della relazione tra polizia e giustizia: riformismo penale e Rivoluzione francese (1760-1800)
  • Vincent Fontana, Dans l’ombre de l’enquête. Le rôle des agents subalternes en matière de police judiciaire pendant la période napoléonienne (Genève, 1798-1814)
  • Simona Fazio, I funzionari di polizia della Vicaria di Palermo: 1820-1840
  • Herbert Reinke, Order, Disorder, Crime and Control in 19th-Century German Cities
  • Simona Mori, “La parte più nobile e più utile”. Ufficiali di pubblica sicurezza e polizia giudiziaria nell’Italia unita: testimonianze e discussioni
  • Paola Tessitori, “Nulla allo schedario stranieri”. Il formarsi del diritto dell’immigrazione nelle prassi di polizia giudiziaria fra l’Ottocento e i primi decenni del Novecento

Sabato 7 dicembre, ore 9.15

Interventi

  • Giovanni Tessitore, L’evoluzione della penalità e i crocevia della storia
  • Luigi Vergallo, La polizia e la lotta contro il traffico degli stupefacenti a Marsiglia: 1914-1939
  • Flavio Carbone, I carabinieri e la polizia giudiziaria: la nuova sfida degli anni Cinquanta

Discussione Oltre ai relatori partecipano: Livio Antonielli, Alessandro Buono, Vittoria Calabrò, Patrizia De Salvo, Gigliola Di Renzo Villata, Filippo Fiorito, Simona Laudani, Daniela Novarese, Enza Pelleriti, Claudio Povolo, Andrea Romano, Carmen Trimarchi

Parution : Buveurs, voleuses, insensés et prisonniers à Namur au XVIIIe siècle : Déviance, justice et régulation sociale au temps des Lumières

buveurs

Sarah Auspert, Isabelle Parmentier, Xavier Rousseaux, Buveurs, voleuses, insensés et prisonniers à Namur au XVIIIe siècle : Déviance, justice et régulation sociale au temps des Lumières, PU de Namur, 2012, 184 pp., « Histoire, Arts et Archéologie » n°14.

 

Qu’est-ce qu’un système policier ? Atelier SYSPOE, 22 novembre 2013

Atelier du 22 novembre 2013

Qu’est-ce qu’un système policier ?

Sorbonne, 1 rue Victor Cousin, Salle Perroy, galerie Dumas, escalier R, 2e étage.

Programme

Accueil des participants à partir de 9 heures

 

Matinée 9h 15-12 h 15

 

 

Présentation de la journée : Vincent Denis (IHMC-Paris 1, IUF), Vincent Milliot (CRHQ, Caen)

 

Livio Antonielli (Université de Milan)

Une variable peu considérée : le role des exécuteurs et des auxiliaires
dans le système policier.

 

Vincent Fontana (Uni. Genève)

Un système fixe de surveillance et d’investigation ». Système policier et répression de la criminalité dans le département du Léman pendant la période française (1798-1813).

 

 

Après-midi 13h 45  – 17 h 30

 

Chiara Lucrezio Monticelli (Université Rome 2)

L’hybridation entre polices d’Etat et ecclésiastiques à Rome de la Restauration à la République de 1849 : un système de police ?

 

Laurent Lopez (Centre d’Histoire du 19e siècle, Paris I-Paris IV)

Que forme la force publique française à la fin du XIXe siècle ?

 

Jacques de Maillard (UVSQ, CESDIP)

Organisation et systèmes policiers : une perspective de sociologie politique.

 

René Lévy (CESDIP)

Systèmes policiers européens: grandes tendances actuelles.

Book review : Gendarmes and policemen on the peripheries of Napoleon’s Empire

Review :

Aurélien Lignereux,

« Servir Napoléon : policiers et gendarmes dans les départements annexés de l’Empire, 1800-1814″

Editions Champ Vallon, Seyssel, collection « Epoques », 2012

30 €

The history of the French Empire has been slowly, but surely reviving in France for the last few years. This latest study by Aurélien Lignereux is a sign of this vitality and also an attempt to create a new dialogue between the French historiography of Napoleon and a history that has been predominantly written outside France, for the last decades, in Great-Britain, in the US, in Italy, or in the Netherlands.

Aurélien Lignereux, who also recently published a new synthesis on the French Empire in the prestigious « L’Univers Historique » series for Le Seuil, is a recognized specialist of the gendarmerie in France, from the Directoire to the first decades of the 19th century,  a subject on which he wrote two books, focusing on the rebellious incidents against the gendarmes in Napoleonic France, and their socio-political significance.

This new study is devoted to a forgotten continent (in the French historiography),the presence of the Napoleonic State in the so-called « départements réunis » or « annexés », territories that were gradually assimilated to consular then imperial France, and submitted to the same, identical legislative and administrative norms. Unlike the « satellites » of France, as the « sister Republics » or other semi-autonomous French possessions in Europe established under various nominations, the départements réunis are not favored by French historians, who focused also mainly on the « older France », in its limits of 1791. Too short-lived, too fragile, too unreal for a modern gaze, they were the « parents pauvres » of the French history of the Empire, who lingered on the more traditional French peripheries, the Midi and the West. The first merit of this study is to renew the interest for these unknown extensions of the French system, that were also political and administrative experiments, in a way open by the French revolutionaries of 1789 and 1792.

No doubt Aurélien Lignereux’s curiosity for these peculiar peripheral territories was excited when he studied the rebellions against gendarmes. He was inspired by the new imperial history of the British Empire, too, and the works of Michael Broers on the French Empire, in peculiar Broers’s assumption of the existence of a « frontier » (in the US sense) on the margins or inside Napoleon’s France. This model, based on the study of the French presence in Italy, emphasizes on the inner discontinuities within the French Empire, and refutes the traditional separation between metropolitan France and its satellite territories or subject territories. In a way, the study by Aurélien Lignereux is an attempt to prolonge this hypothesis and to test it on a broader scale, relying on precise and exhaustive data on police and gendarmerie activity and personnels, in the « départements réunis », that were precisely produced by the moving « frontier ». But his main concern is slightly different from Broers’, though. Lignereux tries to understand the very concrete nature of French rule in those occupied territories, focusing on police and gendarmerie personnels, who were the main and ominous presence of the French State, especially after military occupation and military rule had ceased. So this research echoes also the works of Clive Emsley and his influential essay on Gendarmes and the State in 19th century Europe (1999), assessing the decisive role of the gendarmes in modern State-building among the European countryside. This is not only a history of police personnels, but also an attempt to define what kind of governance was exercised by the conquerant Napoleonian government, on its uncertain peripheries, ranging from the Hanseatic area on the North Sea to the outskirts of Rome, including the actual Netherlands and the city of Geneva, threatening to absorh also Upper Catalonia in Spain.

Aurélien Lignereux deserves a praise for the extraordinary amount of data he collected, on several thousands of gendarmes and the few hundreds of police commissioners who were assigned to the « départements réunis », drawing useful comparisons between the different territories considered, but also with « older France ». Litteraly two forces of different kind coexisted, with opposed features. The gendarmes were mobile, not staying more than two years in the same location, and  predominantly originated from « inner France », although they were always mixed with « indigenous » gendarmes, in variable ratios. On the contrary, police commissioners were sedentary (a common feature with « inner France »), rather rooted in local society (although they could be strangers), and frequently born in the country where they worked. It is not clear if this dual system was specifically intended by the French government, or mostly the result of the obstacle of language and the martial function of gendarmerie. It apparently produced in the rural areas and the smallest towns watched by the gendarmes and in the larger towns and cities where police commissioners were assigned, two styles of policing. One may think that the presence of a police commissioner deeply rooted in local, urban society and prone to listen (literally) its complaints, was congruent to a traditional vision of police work in urban context, where negociating order and settling disputes was primordial. On the contrary, as Lignereux suggests, the systematic deployment of bilingual brigades by carefully mixing French and native speakers was clearly not a priority for the government, as the gendarmerie was still in infancy as an investigative police force, and more devoted to surveillance and maintaining « public order », that is French order. French authorities were even suspicious of a too deep involvement of gendarmes in the local society, beginning with the mastering of the language. Such prejudices, and the « pretorian » nature of the gendarmerie assumed by the government limited the relations between the force and local populations. The consequence was the lack of useful intelligence, as Lignereux demonstrates, although the gendarmes carefully and dutifully filled pages of reports and standardized « tableaux », to satisfy the curiosity and the typical taste for exhaustive data of the French central authorities of the time.

A significant part of the book is devoted to the experience of the expatriated policemen and gendarmes, foreigners in their own country. The reader will not ignore any more their doubts, their anxieties and melancholy, their boredom in locations remote from France and their « pays », comparing in their letters Rhenany to Siberia… Women played a part, too, be they legitimate spouses, at their side or distant, mistresses or illegitimate encounters in the local garrison, or local young girls that virile bachelors courted, frequented or married, most of the time under the complacent eye of their superiors, who encouraged « fraternization » and hoped – during the first years – to help the « fusion » of foreign peoples with the French.

This dream was short-lived, although some vivid examples were not rare. People generally resented the French forces and assimilated the police to a foreign presence, although admitting they could be useful. However, the French Empire did not crumble from inside, but was military defeated by invadors. For Aurélien Lignereux, it is the sign that some compromise was in a way attained with some groups of local populations, showing a certain degree of acceptance. Broers demonstrated that French rule was stabilized through a preliminary phase of a certain violence, and the action of « special teams » of policemen, soldiers and gendarmes, where it was difficult to make distinction between the good, the bad and the ugly. The book emphasizes more on the second phase, showing that police forces were rather restraining themselves and trying to respect the rule of law. The real test was the actual prosecutions of policemen and gendarmes by magistrates, revealing the existence of an « état de droit ». Actually, studying rebellious incidents and contestations of police forces, Lignereux shows that the gendarmerie undermined the legitimacy it could gain by fighting against brigands or being spotless, in enforcing conscription or new fiscal regulations (in the territories exposed to smugglers, especially on the shores of the Northern Sea). The precise data collected on these troubles, with the experience gained in Lignereux’s precedent book on this subject), allows to draw fine maps of contestation in the Empire, every great region being dominated by a predominant concern : taxation in the North, traditions and religious issues, conscription. This last topic was not the single cause of agitation, and disturbances were very much linked with local circumstances and policies.

In case of seditious acts, the French always reacted with extreme violence and severity. In this respect, this is more the sign of a « weak State » than the mark of an overwhelming Leviathan or « police-State ». Only violence and fear could subjugate disobedient populations, according to the authorities. The harshness of repression and the expeditive means put in use suggest the precarious nature of the « état de droit » which the French tried to maintain. No doubt it added to the resentment of locals against French rule, and helped the sudden fall of French rule when the Allied armies invaded the departements. Indigenous police personnels took invariably side with their fellow compatriots against the French, except for a few individual exceptions. The dream of a « fusion » was short-lived.

There are interesting pages on the posterity of this experience. Sons and grand-sons of expatriates policemen and gendarmes, sometimes born from mixed couples, « sons of the Empire », participated to the new imperialist ventures of Napoleon III in Europe and overseas. The book also follows some men who had a new career when France conquered Algeria in 1830 and were sent as lieutenant de police or to command the gendarmerie. Is there a relation, and more than this thread, between colonial expansion and the previous experience of Napoleon’s Empire ? The conclusion is reasonably cautious on this matter, which demands a careful (and further) examination. The circulation of men does not imply the use of the same practices, writes (with reason) Aurélien Lignereux. To answer, it would need a comparison of police practices, and a better knowledge of 19th century police in Algeria. It is very interesting to follow future trajectories, but the book cannot deal with this issue. On the contrary, it would have been very valuable to take the same interest in past trajectories, and to assess what role played the revolutionary experience in the 1790’s among policemen and gendarmes when they were serving Napoleon and the « great Nation ». Here, it could be possible to compare what you could have done in Paris or in Lyon, in 1793 or 1795, and what you would do in Hamburg or Florence. Various names are familiar to historians of the Revolutionary State and its police forces : Capelle, for instance, began as a Parisian section official in the first years of the Revolution, then a police commissionner in the turmoil of the Directoire, in the rebellious capital, before continuing his career on the marchs of Empire. Here I must recall the interest of RIchard Cobb’s Armées révolutionnaires, one of the greatest books on the French Revolution, in which the British historian followed in the military and Parisian archives the fate of the militants of the Parisian armée révolutionnaire. In this respect, the very valuable and extraordinary work done here falls victim of its own virtues, the difficulty to reconstruct complete and long biographies among thousands of individuals. The book is more a synchronic view, than a diachronic study.

Eventually, the book draws in the last pages a comparison with colonial policing. The emphasis on the « rule of law », the self-restraint of policing in normal times, the egalitarian incorporation of indigenous men does not qualify the policing in use as « colonial », as it will be developed in last part of  the 19th century and onwards. On this respect, a useful comparison could have been made with the actual French colonies of the time, for establishing the « imperial » nature of policing. Anyway, Aurelien Lignereux pleads in favour of an irreductible originality for the Napoleonean experience, a truly « imperial » form of policing, which is neither national, nor colonial. Therefore, the book is a new contribution to an ongoing debate among historians of « empires » about the nature of the French Empire in the age of Napoleon. This is the reason why it will surely be of great interest for historians, beyond the the circle of specialists of Napoleonean France and of French police and gendarmerie.

 

 

Séminaire Gendarmeries, polices et sociétés (XIXe-XXe siècles).

Gendarmeries, polices et société (XIXe-XXIe siècles). Maintien de l’ordre, régulation sociale, sécurité intérieure et Défense

 

Séminaire de l’Université Paris IV-Sorbonne et du Centre d’Histoire du XIXe siècle (universités Paris et Paris IV) : “ Gendarmeries, polices et société (XIXe-XXI siècles). Maintien de l’ordre, régulation sociale, sécurité intérieure et Défense ”.

Séminaire de l’Université Paris—Sorbonne (Centre d’histoire du XIXe siècle, Paris I – Paris IV)

Gendarmeries, polices et société (XIXe-XXIe siècles). Maintien de l’ordre, régulation sociale, sécurité intérieure et Défense

Professeur Jean-Noël LUCArnaud-Dominique HOUTE, maître de conférences, jnoel.luc@gmail.comarnaudhoute@aol.com

Maison de la recherche (28 rue Serpente, Paris VIe – mardi 17h-19h, salle D 323.)

Ouvert en 2000, le séminaire de la Sorbonne poursuit deux objectifs :

* étudier l’histoire, longtemps négligée par les chercheurs, de la gendarmerie, force militaire et de police originale ;

* étendre les travaux à l’ensemble des forces de l’ordre, civiles ou militaires, publiques ou privées, professionnelles ou informelles, qui participent à la sécurité, intérieure et extérieure, afin de contribuer au décloisonnement des recherches et à une meilleure compréhension du fonctionnement, des acteurs et des pratiques de la sécurité

Le programme est disponible au lien suivant :

http://www.paris-sorbonne.fr/IMG/pdf/Gendarmeries-Polices_Seminaire_Paris_IV_2e_Sem_12-13_PIVB-_au_31-01-2013.pdf

Soutenance de thèse : « Inspirer la crainte, le respect et l’amour du public » : les inspecteurs de police parisiens, 1740-1789″

Rachel COUTURE, doctorante en co-tutelle Université de Basse-Normandie (UCBN)/ Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM)

 

Directeurs de thèse : Pascal Bastien (UQAM) et Vincent Milliot (UCBN)

Soutiendra sa thèse à partir de 14h30 au département d’Histoire de l’UQAM

Pavillon J.-A. DeSève – Local DS-1950 – 320, rue Sainte-Catherine est

 

 

Vendredi 18 janvier 2013

« ‘Inspirer la crainte, le respect et l’amour du public’ :

les inspecteurs de police parisiens, 1740-1789 »

 (2 volumes, 818 p.)

 

devant un jury constitué de

 

Mme Catherine Denys, Professeur en histoire moderne. Université de Lille 3 (rapporteur extérieur)
Mr Donald Fyson, Professeur, département d’histoire. Université Laval (rapporteur extérieur)
Mr Pierre Robert, Professeur, département des sciences juridiques. Université du Québec à Montréal
Mr Pascal Bastien, Professeur, département d’histoire. Université du Québec à Montréal (Directeur de thèse)
Mr Vincent Milliot, Professeur en histoire moderne. Université de Caen Basse-Normandie (Directeur de thèse)

Résumé :



L’étude des inspecteurs de police parisiens du XVIIIe siècle est négligée par l’historiographie, hormis par quelques travaux d’histoire traditionnelle qui en dressent un sombre portrait et d’histoire sociale des années 1980 qui l’abordent indirectement. Pour répondre à cette lacune, l’enquête se consacre à la compréhension de l’organisation de leur métier à compter de 1740, moment de la refondation de la compagnie, jusqu’en 1789, celui de sa dissolution. L’intérêt d’étudier l’évolution de son fonctionnement est manifeste dans un contexte de réorganisation policière au long cours, qui s’inscrit notamment dans la foulée de la création du guet (1666) et de la lieutenance de police (1667). L’histoire sociale et administrative de cette institution est structurée autour de trois pôles d’étude pour vérifier l’hypothèse de l’approbation grandissante des inspecteurs de police après 1740 suivant leur professionnalisation.

Primo, l’approche prosopographique des 80 inspecteurs de police en service entre 1742 et 1789 relève le resserrement des exigences professionnelles au moment de l’entrée dans le métier. Secundo, la normalisation des pratiques des inspecteurs de la sûreté, regardée sous l’angle de la spécialisation policière, témoigne de la consolidation de l’exercice du métier. Ainsi, la meilleure codification du protocole de travail et la clarification de la répartition des tâches avec d’autres agents du maintien de l’ordre harmonisent les rapports de ces derniers. Tercio, les mesures de légitimation déployées par les autorités montrent non seulement l’effort de reconnaissance sociale des inspecteurs de police, mais aussi sa meilleure acceptation par la population.

Mots clés : Police, Paris, XVIIIe siècle, Inspecteur de police, Sûreté, Professionnalisation

 

 

The study of 18th century Paris police inspectors is generally neglected by historians, other than a few traditional works of history that paint a dark picture as well as works of social history dating from the 1980s that approach the subject indirectly. To address this gap, this survey seeks to elucidate the manner in which the profession was organized, beginning in 1740, when the force was reformed, until 1789, when it was dissolved. The value in studying the development of its operations becomes evident when viewed against a backdrop of the long-term reorganization of the police force, which took place with the advent of patrols (1666) and police lieutenants (1667). The institution’s social and administrative history revolves around three areas of research, which seeks to verify the hypothesis

Firstly, the prosopographic approach to 80 police inspectors in service from 1742 to 1789 stems from the tightening of job requirements implemented at the time they entered the profession. Secondly, the standardization of safety inspector practices, viewed from the perspective of police specialization, attests to the consolidation of professional practice. As a result, relations improved among law enforcement officers in general due to better codification of the work protocol and the clarification of task distribution. Thirdly, the legitimacy measures implemented by the authorities demonstrated not only the effort to improve the social recognition of police inspectors but also their greater acceptance on the part of the population.